如何编写英文科技论文。发表大品位学术文章有那难以也?

想念只要编一篇优秀的英文科研论文,对于不英语母语的科研工作者而言并非同一起好的政工。有时候能否射到还胜似划分的杂志刊物和写作水平也密不可分。本文通过整理Cell
Research编辑姜姝姝的讲座内容,简单介绍如何撰写一首优秀的英文科研论文。

1. Abstract

顾念使写一篇优秀之英文科研论文,就假设先行清楚啊是出色的论文什么不是。
编不希罕看的文章类型:
(1)逻辑混乱的章
(2)用语不当夸大其词或达有误
(3)语法和另外左

圆求概括,言简意赅,因为绝大部分journal对Abstract都生字数限制,一般150~250words。先简单描述一下和谐干活儿之战线背景,几句子话,然后引出自己的试(“In
this paper…”,“Herein…” or “Here,
we…”),主要陈述实验结果,可稍许带提一下所用到之严重性措施的名目,然后说明你的结果的含义“These
datasuggest…”;最后总结提高“In a word,…”or “In summary ,…”。

一般性而言一首科研论文包含以下一些:
Title
Abstract
Introduction
Results
Discussion
Materials and Methods
Acknowledgements

2. Introduction

Title

题目是编辑或者阅读者首先看到底,因此得到一个吓题至关重要。
咱们若就此最好少的单词概括出文章的主题,对题目来以下三碰要求:
1.简洁,完整,易懂
2.避免出现化学式或特殊符号
3.日常用以下三种植形式:短语式、句子式和主副式,比如:
短语式:
Cyro-EM structure of human DNA-PK holoenzyme
A vital sugar code for ricin toxicity
句子式:
Suppression of MAPK11 or HIPK3 reduces mutant Huntingtin level in
Huntington’s disease models
Intermittent fasting promotes adipose thermogenesis and metabolic
homeostasis via VEGF-mediated alternative activation of macrophage
主副式:
Class I histone deacetylases are major histone decrotonylases: evidecnce
for critical and broad function of histone crotonylation in
transcription

叙述和你的试相关的天地研究现状和有的问题,自然之过于到你试的义及要害。“Although…,there
are still… so far” “Here, for the first time, we have
used…”。如果您面前都发过相关的文章,要插入引用一下“We recently showed
that…” 或 “Our previous studies have shown that… These results
verify that…” “Here…”“To explore this hypothesis, we
generated…”。写好Introduction需要来恢宏的参考文献做基础,摘取短语、词组、句子进行
reorganize。调节好光景句子的逻辑顺序和衔接。

Abstract

Abstract的目的是为帮助读者很快了解文章的情节。
产生以下几独要求:
1.独立性与完整性
得独自在并能传达全文核心思想
2.简洁、准确、逻辑性强
以Abstract有字数限制,我们要用短短几句子话说明全文的核心思想,因此各国一个单词和语句都使细致琢磨
3.式符合期刊的专业
以发表在Cell Research 的‘5-Hydroxymethylcytosine signatures in cell-free
DNA provide information about tumor types and stages’为条例:

image.png

Green:课题背景
高亮:结果(可以简单提试艺术)
红线:总结(可以适当展望提升)

3. Materials and Methods

Introduction

1.介绍本文研究世界的前行状况(mini-review)
介绍内容自然是与本文主线最相关的钻背景。重要之触发得要提到到。细节处可以在文中提及时再介绍。
2.经座谈仍研究世界也缓解的题目(包括团结前发表论文不缓解之题材),自然过渡至介绍你的尝试目的与关键。
3.以最终简单介绍以研究所召开的情和结论。
注意:
必然要是在少的篇幅内到介绍就领略是背景,但是不要过分铺开,只要围绕文章主线着重介绍相关的背景即可。

眼看有的可以从别的章摘到现的章程描述,加以改造,替换成温馨之试行条件,变成温馨之表达方式,近几年journal对抄袭句子的气象抓得特别严格,多在意。太复杂的藏方法,可以略描述后长参考文献“Briefly,
… ”;也可直接引用参考文献 “The…method was performed as described
previously”.

Materials and Methods

对立而言即是平等首文章最轻松的有些,但是是有也是极度容易犯错的有的。通常方法材料有的语法检查最不细心,常见问题概括:时态、单复数、主动被动语态

4. Results

Results

1.逻辑很重大,有条的描述故事。注意段以及段中间的逻辑。可以在每一样有些的略微结果的开赛写有承上启下的词以连续段。

  1. 诸一样段落表达一个观。在每段受到吗要出逻辑(时间各个,从连到实际的顺序,因果顺序),可以用平行的句式和实惠的连接词。开头和最终很重大,在结尾处要召开使人印象深刻的强调。
    3.针对实验结果开展精确之叙说。如果语言不当会招误解。推测的结果应以有意味着想、可能的修饰词语。
    4.对试验结果开展客观之下结论及释疑。
    5.如果稿子数以同一型实验,在率先不成介绍时可详细一些,让读者更易于理解,而其后的牵线好概括些。
    6.
    在叙述实验操作和实验结果时用过去时常,在写结论和开导时用今天时时。

讲述实验方法和结果的常用句式:
We found ……
We have noticed that……
We characterized ……
Our analysis showed ……
In order to ……, we ……
We next detected ……
After that, we examined ……
正如连接的常用句式:
In Contrast ……
Compared with ……
Consistent with ……
In line with……
Importantly ……
Interestingly ……
Of note ……
In addition ……
敲定和启发时的常用句式:
In conclusion ……
These results suggest that ……
The data indicate that ……
These data demonstrate that ……
Taken together, these results provide further evidence that ……

假若依照一定之逻辑顺序进行organize,结果描述如精确、专业,一些主要之数目好置身结果有的文字描述中。这一部分不能够如
Introduction那样写不过多之理论性的东西。

Discussion

议论是对立难写的部分,讨论不是指向结果粗略的摆,而是本着结果进行更进一步深入之讨论:
乃的研究解决了世界被争问题及困惑
公的研讨提出了安新的恐怕
事后该如何去进一步研究等
一般,还足以以结尾处再下结论一下温馨的研究成果

1976年,William Zinsser在《On Writing Well》提出可以创作的老三规则:

“The secret of good writing is to strip every sentences to its
cleanest components. Every word that serves no function, every long
word that could be a short word, every adverb that carries the same
meaning that’s already in the verb, every passive construction that
leaves the reader unsure of who is doing what-these are the thousand
and one adulterants that weaken the strength of a sentence. And they
usually occur in proportion to the education and rank.”
1.多就此主动态(主语+谓语+宾语)
2.大抵因此动词,选择更准的动词。突出动词,尽量不要拿动词变为名词。
3.简短语言

每段的始发或一些老是的地方可以略地用有些理论性的抑总结性的句子。在陈你的尝试操作以及观的结果及表面现象时用过去时态,陈述不以人的气为换的原理、结论性的始末经常用一般现在经常。常用之短语及句式有:

用主动态

被动态包括:宾语+谓语+主语,或宾语+谓语
eg:
Upon the chemical treatment, the activation of XX signaling pathway
could be observed.
得改也:
We could observe the activation of XX signaling pathway upon the
chemical treatment.

General dysfunction of the immune system has been suggested in both
mouse and human studies.
好修改为:
Both mouse and human studies suggested that XX (disease) cause general
dysfunction of the immune system.

“In order to prove…, we used…”;

动词

  1. 慎选重复可靠之动词
    report approximately 可以用estimate替代
  2. 少用to be (am, is, are, be, been, was, were)
  3. 丢掉把动词名词化
    provide explanation ->explain
    offer confirmation of ->confirm
    report the identification of ->identify
    the recruitment of A by B to initiate ->B recruits A to
    initiate
    2mM sodium hydroxide rapidly induced XX cytoplasmic
    translocation->
    2mM sodium hydroxide rapidly induced XX to translocate into the
    cytoplasmic
  4. 如果用重大的动词靠近主语
    One study of 120 breast cancer patients who received XX treatment in
    North America found that the 15-year survival rate is low.
    ->One study found that, of 120 breast cancer patients who
    received XX treatment in North America, the 15-year survival rate is
    low.

“We have set up…”;

简语言的注意事项

1.未待介绍性短语。例如:as it is published; as it is known

2.失去丢没有意思的歌词。例如: important

3.啰嗦的词简化,把精力花在重大的句子上
a majority of ->most
a number of ->many
all four of the ->the four
due to the fact that ->because
give rise to ->cause

4.再次意义之乐章或句子用一个
limit condition, output performance

5.推掉一部分副词:very, really, quite

6.用肯定语气
not harmful ->safe
does not have ->lacks
not correct ->wrong
be not the result of A but B ->reflect B rather than A

7.不要常用there is/are
There are many ways in which we can handle this case.
->We can handle this case in many ways.

The data suggest there is an association between temperature and crop
diseases.
->The data suggest an association between temperature and crop
diseases.

It is likely that there exists functional redundancy among XX
proteins.
->It is likely that functional redundancy among XX proteins exists.

8.用标点符号来改变句式,精简语言
支行(semicolon): 连接两个单身的从句。
圆括哀号(parenthesis):
加入解释或者局部设法,即使没立刻有些句也应有是独的。
冒号(Colon):
分隔能力弱于分号,比破折号要标准。用于列举,引用,举例,第二只自句是率先独由句的延。
破折号(dash): 表示强调,解释还是概念。留给重要的用处。

在英文作文中我们常犯的问题:
1.科学用语之准头
2.时态荒谬(描述实验过程结果时用过去式,总结实验结果经常用现在时常)
3.单复数错误
4.’a’,’an’,’the’的采用不当
5.比不针对顶:
The root length of XX mutant is shorter than wild type rice.
The root length of XXmutant is shorter than that of wild type
rice.
6.之所以词要句式单一
7.语序问题
8.句子过长
9.运口语化用词

末尾,那么我们到底要怎么增强写作技能呢?
多看、多读、多写、多总结

得尝尝每次翻阅了论文后为此两三句话概括或评头品足文章的情节
还可将读了章中之经文句式、好词摘录下

“To demonstrate…, we further…”;

“Consistently/Consistent with…”;

“Compared with…”;

“Thus, at current time, we have evidence that…”;

“We next characterized…”;

“We found that…”;

“We have noticed that…”;

“It’s known that…”;

“So we introduced… In our study…”;

“In contrast…”;

“These data suggest that…”;

“So we next explored…”;

“Notably, …”;

“Importantly, …”;

“Furthermore…”;

“Moreover…”;

“We have previously shown that…”;

“As shown in Fig. 1, …”;

“Fig. 1 shows…”;

“Overall, …”;

“Taken together, these results suggest…”;

“These data are consistent with the notion that…”;

“Next, we examined the effect of…”;

“We next set out to determine whether…”;

“Lastly, we examined…”;

“In order to establish…”.

5. Results Discussion

马上同一局部极端紧要,也绝为难写,是豪门最好爱犯错的地方。即使是指向有的发了成百上千稿子的一直教授的话,这有些仍是块硬骨头,尤其是top
paper,Discussion非常重大,因为评阅你paper的人,都是世界头号的大牛。

首先要小心,Discussion不可知过多地摆和重结果有的情,这是常犯的荒唐,因为发没什么可说的,就再结果来伪造。讨论部分好纵你的试行结果论述和公的结果密切相关的研究现状有的如出一辙雨后春笋问题,你的干活是化解的啊部分题材。

议论要延出许多结实有所反映不下的音,如你的工作的马拉松效应、潜在效果、与他人工作的比,相同之处、不同之处、你的优势、你的结果有的题目、局限性及其原因、将来足改善之地方等等。

可纵你试中取的以及预期不等同的interesting的结果粗略讨论一下可能的原委。对一些top的paper来说,你的research中之部分题材是坏不便躲得少的,还免若积极提出讨论,变被动为积极。对一般的稿子,另当别论,一般大家都好打一个圆满的环绕。写作风格及每个人不相同,有文明、按部就班的,也似乎西部牛仔一样豪爽的,都不曾问题。

议论起,可以开门见山:

“Here, we describe….” 或

“In this paper, we show that…. Importantly, …, suggesting…”

下面是片常用之短语和句式:

“Overall, our studies establish the…”;

“Although there are important discoveries revealed by these studies,
there are also limitations. First, …;Second, …;

Third, …;Fourth, …;Last, …Overall, …”;

“Furthermore, our results suggest that…”;

“Our results suggest a possibility of…”;

“One important future direction of …is…”;

“To this end, we show that…”;

“However, none of these approaches to date holds the…”;

“Our studies serve as a proof-of-concept that…”;

“This could explain why…”;

“Alternatively, … may be operative…”;

“Thus, future iterations of … may in fact demonstrate even greater
potency.”;

“On the other hand, the lack of…”;

“In summary, we have identified…”;

“Our results confirm that…”;

“These studies thus offer a new strategy to treat…”

6. Acknowledgements

当时同样组成部分至关重要感谢友情给你帮助的,技术劳务同写指导的。最后写基金号,写多少都尽。

接留言交流经验。

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